Localisation in international large-scale assessments of competencies: Challenges and solutions
International comparative studies like the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) pose special challenges to the localisation of the test content. To allow for comparison between countries, the assessments have to be comparable with respect to measurement properties. Therefore, internationalisation and localisation are crucial steps to guarantee test equivalence across countries. The localisation of test items is different from the localisation of web-based contents or software as the test content has to be authentic within a country while the test's measurement properties have to be comparable across countries.
Using the PIAAC study (Programme for the Assessment of Adult Competencies) as an example, this paper describes all stages of the localisation process for an international large-scale assessment. The process ranges from the development of source items to translation, adaptation of layout issues and meta-data adaptations. The paper concludes with a discussion of lessons learned and open questions.