Effects of spontaneous adult behavior on distress levels of two- to eight-year-olds during voiding cystourethrograms
The Voiding Cystourethrogram (VCUG) is an invasive radiological procedure that may involve high distress in children. This study investigated the course of child distress and the relationship between child distress and spontaneous adult behavior such as distraction, humor, and commands to use coping strategies during VCUG.
The sample comprised 80 two- to eight-year-olds undergoing outpatient VCUGs. Child and adult vocalizations were coded using a standardized rating scale. Data were analyzed by means of hierarchical linear models. Results showed that child distress varies significantly across the phases of the VCUG. Distraction and humor were associated with a decrease in child distress, while for commands to use coping strategies no association could be established with child distress.
Felber, Michaela; Schabmann, Alfred; Schmiedek, Florian; Friedrich, Max H.; Völkl-Kernstock, Sabine. Effects of spontaneous adult behavior on distress levels of two- to eight-year-olds during voiding cystourethrograms, in: Children's Health Care, 43 (2014) 4, 273-292