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Engelhardt, Lena; Goldhammer, Frank:

Validating test score interpretations using time information

In: Frontiers in Psychology - Quantitative Psychology and Measurement, (2019) , 10:1131

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3a. Beiträge in begutachteten Zeitschriften; Beitrag in Sonderheft

Strukturgleichungsmodell, Empirische Untersuchung, Deutschland, Test, Validität, Computerunterstütztes Verfahren, Aufgabe, Antwort, Zeit, Fertigkeit, Kognitive Prozesse, Kognitive Kompetenz, Lesekompetenz, Denken, Leistungstest, PIAAC (Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies), Datenanalyse

A validity approach is proposed that uses processing times to collect validity evidence for the construct interpretation of test scores. The rationale of the approach is based on current research of processing times and on classical validity approaches, providing validity evidence based on relationships with other variables. Within the new approach, convergent validity evidence is obtained if a component skill, that is expected to underlie the task solution process in the target construct, positively moderates the relationship between effective speed and effective ability in the corresponding target construct. Discriminant validity evidence is provided if a component skill, that is not expected to underlie the task solution process in the target construct, does indeed not moderate the speed-ability relation in this target construct. Using data from a study that follows up the German PIAAC sample, this approach was applied to reading competence, assessed with PIAAC literacy items, and to quantitative reasoning, assessed with Number Series. As expected from theory, the effect of speed on ability in the target construct was only moderated by the respective underlying component skill, that is, word meaning activation skill as an underlying component skill of reading competence, and perceptual speed as an underlying component skill of reasoning. Accordingly, no positive interactions were found for the component skill that should not underlie the task solution process, that is, word meaning activation for reasoning and perceptual speed for reading. Furthermore, the study shows the suitability of the proposed validation approach. The use of time information in association with task results brings construct validation closer to the actual response process than widely used correlations of test scores. (DIPF/Orig.)

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