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Watermann, Rainer; Maaz, Kai; Bayer, Sonja; Roczen, Nina:

Social background

In: Kuger, Susanne;Klieme, Eckhard; Jude, Nina; Kaplan, David (Hrsg.): Assessing contexts of learning Cham : Springer (2016) , 117-145

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Document type
4. Beiträge in Sammelwerken; Sammelband (keine besondere Kategorie)

Feldstudien, Schüler, Demografische Daten, Finanzen, Kulturelle Aktivität, Soziale Interaktion, Schule, Internationaler Vergleich, Schülerleistung, Leistungsmessung, Sozioökonomische Lage, Einflussfaktor, Theorie, Empirische Forschung, Eltern, Beruf, Klassifikation, Ranking, Bildungsniveau, Einkommen, Sozialkapital, Kulturelles Kapital, PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment)

Assessing and measuring students' social background characteristics and relating their background data to achievement is pervasive in international large-scale assessments (ILSAs). Our review focuses on two strains of research: the use of socio-economic status (SES) on the one hand, and the use of cultural and social capital on the other. With regard to SES, we provide a brief overview of theoretical concepts, contrasting unidimensional and multidimensional views. We discuss the variety of measures of SES that researchers use in their studies, highlighting the lack of consensus on their conceptual meaning and measurement. We then outline how key indicators of SES (e.g., parental occupation, parental education, parental income) are assessed in ILSAs. This is followed by a section on the quality of students' reports of parent's SES characteristics. With regard to cultural and social capital we discuss the mechanisms that underlie the relationship between social background and students' achievement. In addition, we give a brief overview of research applying the theory of cultural and social capital in the context of ILSAs. Finally, practical implications for the assessment of social background characteristics in ILSA are discussed, and recommendations are offered. Some of these background characteristics were tested in the PISA 2015 field trial. (DIPF/Orig.)

Bildungsqualität und Evaluation; Struktur und Steuerung des Bildungswesens