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Scaling procedures and construct validation of context questionnaire data
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5. Arbeits- und Diskussionspapiere; Forschungsbericht/Projektberichte/Schulrückmeldungen
PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment),
The PISA 2018 Context Questionnaire are based on the questionnaire framework (OECD, 2018), described in chapter 3 of this report. Many questionnaire items were designed to be combined in some way in order to measure latent constructs that cannot be observed directly (e.g. a student's achievement motivation or economic, social and cultural background). To these items, transformations or scaling procedures were applied to contruct meaningful indices. In the following, these indices are referred to as "derived variables". This chapter describes derived variables based on one or more items that were constructed and validated for all questionnaires administered in PISA 2018.
Educational Quality and Evaluation